Evidences shows signs of amputation surgery before 31,000 years ago

The recent archeological findings at an excavation site in Borneo, Indonesia dates back to the first amputation surgery that happened around 31,000 years ago. The skeleton of a teenage boy found in Borneo highlighted a perfectly chopped lower leg, suggesting that it was removed artificially. The supposed to be amputated leg does not have any wear and tear marks by predators, or does not show any signs of being crushed. This suggests that the lower leg of that person was amputated. Another sign highlighting amputation was that the bones were thinned. Researchers stated that this might be the result of low motor activity, which is necessary for the development of bones and muscles. Lack of motor activity causes the muscles to weaken and the bones to thin, as seen with the astronauts when they are in space. According to the previous assumptions, the researchers believed that the need for advanced medicines and medicinal procedures arose upon the development of agricultural colonies. As humans started living in colonies, newer and more serious diseases came to light, which led people to develop several medicines and surgical procedures such as amputation. Researchers believe that agricultural colonies started around 10,000 years ago. Based on that, scientists thought the oldest record of amputation surgery dated back to 7,000 years ago. This finding is based on the skeleton of a french farmer who highlighted an amputated arm. Another ancient record of similar surgery was found in the North American region, where a skull was found that showed an artificially pierced skull for medical purposes. Because of this, this newly found skeleton of a teenage boy with an amputated lower leg is being referred to as a revolutionary finding. The found skeleton dates back almost 31,000 years ago. Back then, humans used to hunt for food. Hence, having a chopped body was common, due to predatory animals or due to accidents during hunting. Such kind of injury can be easily traced as chopped body parts by animals show signs of wear and tear or teeth, and the accidental loss of limb shows crushed bones. But the boy has a perfectly chopped lower leg which is only seen when it is artificially chopped or amputated. The researchers also said that the bone in the amputated leg was completely healed, which showed that the boy lived six to nine years more after the amputation. The area around Borneo, Indonesia has shown signs of an ancient civilization. There are many limestone caves in the region, which shows that there was a civilization living in the area which showed interest mainly in hunting. The findings of surgical amputation suggest that the civilization was much more aware of the human anatomy and medical necessities to be completed during amputation to successfully recover a person after serious blood loss seen during amputation. Amputation surgeries were always avoided during the modern era. It is mainly because the chances of a person's survival from an amputation surgery are extremely low.  A person undergoing an amputation surgery can either die from excessive blood loss, or due to an infection following the amputation surgery. The acceptance of amputation surgery mainly increased after the discovery of better sedative agents and antibiotics.